The emperor Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She died in 1631 while giving birth to their 14th child. Construction began in 1632 and the Taj Mahal was finally completed in 1643. It was constructed of white marble, and it is decorated with at least 30 types of gemstones. Over 1,000 elephants were used to haul the construction materials!